Monday, 2 February 2015

GHORACHO ‘OWNER’ KAI ‘CHAKOR’?



borovpi DALE LUIS MENEZES ani AMITA KANEKAR

Lok Sobhechea venchnukam uprant, BJP-cho sorkar sodrer ailolean olp-sonkhechea lokancher ani tanchea dev-mondirancher hol’le chodda promannan zalole amchea khobra-potrancher ani TV news-acher amkam disun yetat. Fattlea don mhoineanchea kallant ‘ghar wapasi’-che chollvollicho bhorpur bovall amkam aikonk yeta. Tor hem ‘ghar wapasi’-chem prokoronn kitem? Tache fattlo itihas kitem? Ani xevottak Hindutva zome ‘ghar wapasi’- itlea nettan kiteak fuddem vhorunk mukhar sorleat? Hem zanna zaunk kaim itihasik khinnancher ani ghoddnnukancher hea lekhachea survatekuch nodor ghalop gorjechem thorta.
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1818 vorsa, Janer mhoineant Peshwa rajshahi ani British soinikam modem tisrem ani xevottachem Anglo-Maratha gher’r pettlem. British soinikam borobor, hea gher’rant zaite Mahar soinik-ui zhogoddle. Hem gher’r bhov ‘heroic’ zaun aslem, ani hachem karonn mhollear British foujent fokot 250 ghoddekaranchi poltonn (cavalry) ani 500 pãy-soinik (infantry) asle, ani hantuntle choddxe soinik Mahar vortoule. Dusre vatten Peshwa Bajirao Dusro hache fattlean 20,000 ghoddekaranchi poltonn ani 5000 pãy-soinik asle. Bhima Koregaon hea zagear zalolea zhuzant, Peshwa rajshahi tea dis harli.

Punn hea gher’rak aiz ami titlem mhotv dinant. Hachem karonn mhollear hea gher’rant Mahar soinikamni Britisham borobor ravon Peshwa (vo Bharoti) soinikank haroilole dekhun. Amche ‘textbooks’ Peshwanchi har hi amchea raxttrak ek dukhachi gozal oxem manun choltat. Amkam sodanch sangot aileat ki vosnnukponna (colonialism) udexim British Raj amchea raxttrachea lokank damun dovortale mhunnon. Punn amchea ani dusrea kaim borovpianchea mota pormonnem, Britishanchem zoit asa titlench tem Mahar somudayechem zoit-ui aslem. Ami hem monant dovrunk zai ki Peshwa rajshahi hache khal Mahar lok chidd’ddon aslolo, ani 1818 vorsa zalolea gher’rant tankam suttka mell’loli, oxem amcheamni mhonnom-ieta.

Tor osli suttka ji lokank koxtt korun ani zhogddun mellta tachi ami dobajean ugddas dovrunk zai aslo nhoi? Punn ami oxem korinant. Hatunt amchea raxttrvadi (nationalist) itihas likhnnent unneponn disun yeta. Unch zatinchea mon’xank vosnnunkponnacho kall (colonial period) ho zaun aslo opman ani lojecho kall; jea kallant tanchem boll unnem zalolem ani rajniticher tancho probhav komi zalolo. Punn dusre zatinchea lokank hoch vosnnunkponnacho kall niticho ani suttkechea survatecho kall zaun aslo. Dekhik, jea disa Vasco da Gama, Calicut pavlolo, to dis aiz zaite Dalit lok tanchea suttkecho oromb zaun asa oxem man’tat (polle Aditya Nigam, The Insurrection of Little Selves, 2006, pan 182).
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Arya Samaj Ani Tanchem Karya
1880 hea doskant Arya Samaj hi sonstha zolmant aili. Tancho mukhel hetu Hindu dhorm’ ‘reform’ korpant aslo. Hie sonvsthecho promukh mhollear Swami Dayanand Saraswati. Swami Dayanandachea mota pormonnem tea kallacho Hindu dhorm’ matso pirddear zalolo. Hindu dhorm’ adle bhaxen ‘pure’ ani ‘Vedic’ sounskruticho ascho ani dekhun tachem ‘reinterpretation’ korunk Swami Dayanand fuddem sorlo. Atam Hindu dhorm’ ‘reform’ kiteak korchi goroz poddli haka sabar karonnam asat, punn ami tim bariksannin hanga niyallpache nant. Itlench mhollear puro ki ho ‘reform’ ek ‘reaction’ aslem (1) sabar ‘untouchable’ ani sokoilea-zatichio somudayo Kristi dhorm’ apnnaitolea karonnak lagon, (2) Musolman somaz rajkaronnant apleak manyatay magta dekun, (3) Hindu dhormant zativad asa to kabar korunk, ani (4) British-anchem vosnnukponn. Arya Samajacho vaur chodd korun Panjab prantant kherit bhaxen yexosvi zalo.

Swami Dayanand ani Arya Samajachea mon’xank hem sot somzolem ki dhormantoram zait ravlim zalear unch-zatinchea Hindu lokancho Bharatachea rajkaronnant probhav unno zatolo mhonn. Haka lagon Swami Dayanand-an êk yevzonn sodun kaddli ani ti mhollear shuddhi pod’doticho rosto. Shuddhi pod’dote khala Arya Samaj lokank porte Hindu dhormant haddunk vavrunk lagle. Tanchea hie yevzonnek zaitem yes mell’llem karonn atam Arya Samaj Kristi misionaram bhaxen lokank xikxonnachio ani bholaikechio sovlotio divunk lagle, ani vorna-vevosthechea (four-fold hierarchical system) faske bhitorleanuch thoddi bhov ‘social mobility’ ani ‘self respect’ diunk lagle.

Shuddhi pod’dot Swami Dayanand hachea poilim savn pasun asloli. Ti fokot unch zatinchea lokank ‘purify’ korunk uzar kortale. Swami Dayanandan tika novem rup dilem, ani atam shuddhi mhollear dhormantor korpachem sadhon zalem (polle Maria Misra, Vishnu’s Crowded Temple: India Since the Great Rebellion, 2008, panam 70-3).
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‘Ghar wapasi’-cho sarko orth ‘re-conversion’ nhoi punn ‘conversion to Hinduism’
Aiz zor ami ‘ghar wapasi’-chi khobor kortanv zalear, ami tacho itihas sarke toren zanna zaun ghevpacho proyotn korinant. Mahar soinikanche khobrek ani Arya Samajak  kosloch ‘direct’ som’bondh nam, punn hio don itihasik ghoddnuko amcheamni ‘indirectly’ zoddunk zata ‘ghar wapasi’-chem pulitik zanna zaun ghevpak. Jednam kaim Dalit somudayo Peshwa rajshahi harovpant aplem gorv ani suttka asa oxem somzotat ani Vasco da Gama Calicut pavlolo tednam apleak ani aplea sangatiank suttka mellpacho oromb zalo oxem somzotat, tednam hio somudayo ‘ghar’-antlean bhair sorunk proyotn kortat, oxem disun yeta. Dusre vatten jednam Arya Samaj sarkio sonstha shuddhi sarkea pod’doticho vapor kortat tednam heach lokank te ‘ghar’-ant haddun, tankam damun dovorpacho proyotn-ui amkam disun yeta.

Khoreponnim choddxea lokanchi shuddhi vo ‘ghar wapasi’ zata te Hindu dhormant poile suvater kednanch nasle. Dekun, ‘ghar wapasi’-cho sarko orth ‘re-conversion’ nhoi punn ‘conversion to Hinduism’ oso zata. Why I am not a Hindu (1996) hem Kancha Ilaiah hachem pustok oso vichar manddtta ki zaitio porompora ani rit-roviso jio Dalit-bahujan lok palltat taka unch-zatinchea Hindu lokam koddem kainch sombondh nam. Dekhun, Dalit-bahujan lokank ‘Hindu’ oxem vollkhop sarkem nam, oxem to sangta. Punn Dalit-bahujan lokank ‘Hindu’ mhonn vollkhotat tem rajki, ani nhoi dhormik karonnank lagon.

Toxench Christophe Jaffrelot sangta te bhaxen, British Bharotant yeunche poilim, sabar karagiri korpi somudayo (artisanal castes) Islam dhormant bhitor sorlolio, zativada pasun pois vochonk. Jaffrelot-achea mota pormonnem hi osli rajkornnik halchal korop mhollear Hindu hacho ankddo vo lok-sonkhya vaddovpacho yotn. Dekunuch anti-conversion kaideanchi magnnim fattlea kaim vorsam savn zait asa (polle Jaffrelot, Christophe. “India: The Politics of (Re)Conversion to Hinduism of Christian Aboriginals.” Annual Review of the Sociology of Religion hea pustokant, sompadon korpi Patrick Michel and Enzo Pace, vol. 2: Religion and Politics:197–215. Leiden: Brill, 2011, pan 205). Hea ‘ghar wapasi’-chea prokoronnant ek mat thavem zaun ailam: ‘anti-conversion’ kaide zai hacho orth oso-i zaunk xokta ki hozaramni lokank hem ‘ghar’ soddun diunk zai. Ek xekddo adim zoso Arya Samaj vavurtalo Hindu ‘ghar’ ani tachi lok-sonkhya samballun dovrunk, tosoch aiz Raxttra Seva Sangh (RSS) vavurta oxem mhollear, otitay zaunchi nam. RSS ani her sonstha ‘ghar wapasi’ kortat dekun zaito lok atam Buddhist zaunk lagla, zoxe porim Gaya (Bihar) hea ganvant halinch disun ailam.

‘Ghar wapasi’-cho ‘target population’ mhollear, zoxem Dalit zannkar Kancha Ilaiah Asian Age hea potracher boroun sangta, Dalit, Adivasi, ani OBC hea vorgantle lok je aiz ‘evangelical Christianity’ ani ‘prayer groups’-ant vanttekar zatat. Hea lokam modem RSS akant toyar korunk sodta, oxem to mhonntta. Kancha Ilaiah amkam fuddem sangta ki jea disa savn Dr. B. R. Ambedkar-an Nagpur xarant aplo dhorm’ bodol’lolo tea disa savn Dalit-bahujan lokank dhormantor mhonnche ek otmik ani lokxahik (spiritual and democratic) hok’k zaun urlo. Kancha Ilaiah fuddem mhonntta ki adim Dr. Ambedkar-an Buddhism appnailolem, aiz chodd so Dalit-bahujan lok Kristi dhormak akorxit zalolo asa.

Arya Samaj-an ji shuddhi pod’dot chalu keloli ti aiz RSS-an tika ‘ghar wapasi’-chem nanv dilam. Ek amkam saf disun yeta ki shuddhi ani ‘ghar wapasi’ vorna-vevosta ani zativad  posraita, ani dhormantoram (conversions) eka mon’xak hantuntlean bhair sorunk adar dita. Katolk ani Islam dhormantui zativad asa, amkam to lipoun dovrunk naka. Punn Katolk ani Islam dhormachi ‘theology’ sogleank ekuch nodrentlean polleta. Tor hea dhormanchea ‘theology’-intlean zativadak addavunk zata, dekunuch aiz amkam ‘Dalit theology’-cher sahit’ya vachunk mellta.
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Sogllinch  dhormantoram zobordosten kelolim oxem nhoi
Hem soglem jem ami voir sanglam tem Gõychea lokank ani Gõyank lagu zata. Karonn ‘ghar wapasi’ amchea kallar kiteak korunk zai haka ek ‘argument’ oso asa ki sogllim dhormantoram jim sollavea xekddeant savn kelolim asat tim ‘forced’ asat mhunnon. Gõyant tor soglleamni aikolanch astolem ki koxem porim Purtugez kallant amkam soglleank Kristanv kelole te. Novo sôd-vavr zo itihaskaramni laila tachê udexim amkam oxem disun yeta ki sogllinch  dhormantoram zobordosten (forced conversions) kelolim oxem nhoi. Hacher itihasant purave asat (polle Ângela Barreto Xavier. “Disquiet on the Island: Conversion, Conflicts and Conformity in Sixteenth-Century Goa.” Indian Economic & Social History Review vol. 44, no. 3 (2007): 269–95). Soglinch dhormantoram tor zobordosten zalolim zalear aiz lakhamni lok (Kristanv toxech dusrea dhormache) Gõychea Saibachea bhoktek yetole asle, vhoi?

Fuddem, Gõyant zobordosten dhormantoram zalolim hache purave diunk zaite lok oslio kannio sangtat: konnui xit (cooked rice) gheun Hindu lokanche bãynt khoim tea kallar uddoitale, ani hea karonnank lagun to monis (ani tacho kuttumb) bhoxttovtalo ani taka kaim upay nam zaun Kristanv zaunk poddtalem. Hie kannientlean ek disun yeta ki hio oslio kannio chodd korun unch zatinchea bod’dol uloitat mhonnon, kiteak ‘private’ bãycho ani bhoxttavpacho ul’lekh kelolo asa dekun. ‘Private’ bãyio khonnpak khorch khub aslo ani thoddeach lokam koddem tem zomtalem. Fuddem, bhoxttovpachi bhirant chodd korun unch zatichea mon’xak astali, karonn ek favtt bhoxttovlo zalear vorna-vevosthent to sokol poddtalo. Punn oxem astonam ami haka ‘forced conversion’ mhonnpachem kai Hindu dhormantlean ‘excommunication’ korop vo bohixkar ghalop? Kristi dhorman oslea bohixkar ghatlolea ani bhoxttovlolea mon’xank zago diun, tankam man dilo, oxem amcheamni mhunnonk zainam?

Zoxe toren ami aiz Gõyant dhormantoram somzun ghetat, ti somzovnni ‘ghar wapasi’ korpant Hindutva rajkaronnak protsahon ditat. Konnakui hie dhormantorachie somzonnent unneponn asa tem soroll disun yeta. Gõyant ami dhormantoram mhonnche kitem, ani tim koxim zatat, ani lok dhormantoram kiteak kortat hacher bariksannin kednanch vichar korunk nam; tacher bhasabhas-ui kednanch zaunk nam.
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Hea lekhant ami ‘ghar wapasi’ ani dhormantor he mud’de niyallun polleleat. Hea vorvim amkam ek disun yeta tem mhollear prosn jednam dhormantorancho aslo tori khoreponnim zhogddem ani zhuz zata tem zativadak lagon. Hatunt ‘ghar wapasi’-cho ‘secret’ vo ghutt liplolo asa.

(Dale Luis Menezes ‘medieval history’-nt sod-vavr korta Jawaharlal Nehru Universidadint, Novi Dill’li; ani Amita Kanekar-an A Spoke in the Wheel hi Gautam Buddha-chea jivitacher adarloli kadombori boroilea)

(Ho lekh Gulab, Voros 33, Ank 2, Febrer 2015-cher uzvaddak aila)

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