Wednesday, July 22, 2015


African gold, ivory, and other riches figure significantly in Reginald Fernandes’ literary imagination. Though Africa was a place of unending wealth, it was also simultaneously a place of danger and adventure within the Konkani romans. The recurrent and frequent references to Africa were not accidental. There was a particular reason why Africa figured so prominently in the Konkani romans. Taking Reginald’s novel Fidelis (1965) as a base, we can address the issue of the importance of Africa to writers of romans and dwell on the impact it had on the gender roles process.

The primary reason why Africa featured so prominently in the imagination of writers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was due to the large-scale migration of Goans, particularly to East Africa. As a result, stories about and from that continent had freely circulated in Goa. The fact of large-scale migration to East Africa is well attested by Silvia M. de Mendonça-Noronha in her essay, “The Economic Scene in Goa, 1926-1961” (1990). Mendonça-Noronha states that emigration “crucially affected the Goan economy throughout the last two centuries of the Portuguese rule and its impact was very distinctly felt in the period under discussion (1926-61). Most of the emigrants were Christians, especially the ones to East Africa. The basic cause of emigration was excessive pressure of the population on agriculture and the lack of other avenues of employment, thus giving few job opportunities to the local people. They left to find jobs for better prospects elsewhere” (p. 282).

Fidelis fits neatly into the abovementioned pattern of migration to East Africa. The plot opens in Bombay where the hero of the novel Joel D’Souza is nearly done packing his bags for his journey from Bombay to Goa the next day. Having completed his studies, Joel is eagerly looking forward to come back to Goa and to his grandmother. When Joel is about to go to sleep in the night, he hears someone knocking on his door. On opening the door, Joel finds a man trying to escape his attackers. It so turns out that this man is one named Gabriel Pontis, who landed in Bombay from Africa. Fearing for his life Gabriel hands over a small box to Joel, begging him to deliver it to his daughter who lives in Goa. Gabriel’s life is in danger as someone else covets his ancestral wealth that is buried in Gabriel’s ancestral house. The small box that Gabriel hands over to Joel is the key to this buried treasure, and the whole novel is a delightful cat-and-mouse chase to possess the contents of the little box. Thus, as in in real life, migration to East Africa, and the locations of Goa, Bombay, and Africa are knit together in the novel.

Being from Bardez himself, Reginald would have witnessed the migration and also would have heard the many stories about Africa from those who returned to Goa. In a place like Siolim, Reginald’s hometown, such stories about African wealth were aplenty. Shortly after the much publicized 101st birth anniversary celebrations, Reginald’s sister-in-law, Mathilda D’Souza, informed me that he was particularly curious about these stories emanating from Africa, and would indeed rework them in his novels. Thus, the stories of Africa circulating in and around Siolim were grist to the novelist’s writing-mill!

Another important way Africa and migration is connected with Reginald’s oeuvre is through the absence of father-figures in the life of the male protagonists in many of his novels. The male protagonist either has a widowed mother or an ageing grandmother. But on the other hand, the female protagonist always has a father. It can be suggested that migration was a cause for the absence of father-figures in Reginald’s novels. In a similar vein, the portrayal of the male protagonist in Fidelis is no exception. In this novel, Joel’s father is dead, too!

In the course of a discussion, after the 101st birth anniversary celebrations in Siolim, Joel D’Souza, the Assagao-based journalist who was one of the main persons in the organization of the celebrations, suggested that almost every house in Bardez had a person who had migrated to Africa. In particular, the head of the household would generally migrate to Africa. Though the absence of the father or father-figure is portrayed through the death of the patriarch in the novelist’s writing, one can see how the reality of Goa affected by economic constraints and migration had such a huge impact on the portrayal of gender roles in Romi Konkani literature that was not confined to the oeuvre of Reginald.

In the end, one can suggest that the economic reality and lack of job opportunities which led to migration to East Africa created a certain template of portrayal of male and female protagonists in Reginald’s novels. On the one hand, the male protagonist having no father or father-figure to protect him could be the real hero – a self made man – by dint of his own strength, sincerity, and a little bit of luck. While on the other hand, the female protagonist is always in constant need of male protection, though she exercises her own agency in the choice of her life partner. 

While the migration to Africa can be seen as shaping gender roles in Reginald’s novels, what we can also profitably do is to look at this corpus of literature to talk about the actual gender roles in Goa, impacted by this very migration.

My thanks to (the real life) Joel D’Souza and Mathilda D’Souza.

For more Reading Reginald, click here.

(First published in  O Heraldo, dt: 22 July, 2015)

Wednesday, July 8, 2015


Francis de Tuem has a peculiar voice – a mix of guttural and nasal tones that are not always associated with famous singers. Personally, I thought it was a bit strange that he could be a singer when I first heard some of his songs. But when one listens to his sharp political and social critique one instantly realizes why he is such a runaway hit. Known for his irreverently bold songs, Tuem also displays an acute sense of logical reasoning while singing about Goan politics. Hence, one simply had to find out why his latest tiatr Reporter, is a huge hit.

More than the plot, this tiatr derives most of its strength as a bold performance on stage from the songs sung by Tuem. While the main plot revolves around a journalist Anita, who acts as an ombudsman in a political setup that is riddled with corruption and dishonesty, most of the songs tackle the recent political controversies in Goa and the rest of India head-on such as the ‘ghar wapasi’ issue, or the attacks on Christian institutions, the ban on beef, and so on and so forth. The political cantaram in tiatrs are not simply forms of protests, but are also sincere pleas for a change in the way things function in society. In this context, Tuem’s tiatr and the songs he sings in it are no exception.

Though Tuem’s critique of Goan politics is significantly different, there are areas where this critique displays problems. I would like to discuss this with reference to some of his songs. First and foremost, there is a precise and logical manner in which Tuem crafts his songs. The first song that Tuem sang had a bit about the beef ban controversy. That Tuem is no ordinary composer and singer of political songs was proven by his bold reference to a seminal paper that Dr. B. R. Ambedkar wrote on the beef-eating food habits of brahmins in the Vedic times. Such a reference is reassuring as the intellectual stream from which Tuem relies on for mounting a critique of Goan politics is based on a solid premise – one that is firmly lodged within anti-caste struggles of South Asia.

Another important issue that was highlighted through the songs was the controversy of ‘ghar wapasi’. Through the ritual of ‘ghar wapasi’ Hindu-groups have sought to convert Christian, Muslim, and Dalit groups to Hinduism. In his songs, Tuem makes two crucial statements. The first is related to the manner in which the caste hierarchy operates within Hindu temples, which has continued to exclude the so-called ‘lower-caste’ from equal access to temples. Hence, Tuem counter argues, that assuming Christians (or other groups) convert back into Hinduism, what is the guarantee that such ‘re-converts’ will be allowed equal access to Hindu temples?

The second important point that he makes in relation to the ‘ghar wapasi’ episode is regarding the so-called ‘forced conversions’. For those who have been reading and listening about the ‘ghar wapasi’ controversy over the last few months, one of the reasons cited in favor of ‘ghar wapasi’ was that all conversions to Christianity and Islam were ‘forced’, thus justifying this so-called ‘homecoming’. But Tuem’s sensitive and critical understanding of Goan history allows him to make a crucial distinction between those who converted in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries and the Christians in Goa today. Tuem makes the argument that while one of his ancestors had converted, all the generations down the line cannot be termed as ‘converts’. This is true for a lot of Goan Christians today. Though this seems to be a simple and common-sensical point, it escapes so many of us in Goa and India – that today’s Catholics are born into the religion and therefore cannot be termed as converts.

But the cherry on the cake came in the form of Tuem’s bold assertion wherein he forcefully asserted that if he is a Christian today it is solely due to his own wish and devotion. This, we can suggest is a logical culmination for all those who recognize that all conversions were not ‘forced’ and that there is an element of caste that always plays a part in conversion movements whether in Goa or elsewhere. While the many Hindu groups were busy in trying to convince the nation that converts had no agency and mind of their own, Tuem’s assertion allows us to see that this is not the case. In fact, through this song Tuem can be said to create a language through which minoritized groups can respond to attempts at appropriating their histories.

The sense that one gets from the songs and the plot of Reporter is that individual honesty and sincerity is projected as the panacea for all ills. Emphasis is also placed on institutions like the media who act as whistleblowers and guardians of the truth in a similar context. However, one needs to be a bit circumspect about arguments and visions that place the onus and responsibility of smooth and efficient functioning of politics and governance on a few individuals and institutions. What this ultimately means is that power to decide the fates of others have to be concentrated in the hands of a few, and this indeed can be detrimental to democracy. But this is not how it is supposed to be. Power needs to be shared as equitably as possible with all constituent elements in a polity.

The faith and trust reposed in a few individuals and institutions is a problem in Reporter, and calls for careful re-thinking. That aside, while Tuem should rightly revel in the success of his tiatr and his cantaram, it is also time to recognize that the very structure and form of the Goan tiatr allows a certain empowerment of the Goan people. The structure and form of the tiatr not only allows space for political dissent, but in its core is highly politicized. Hence, if articulated properly, tiatr and its cantaram are effective forms of sharp political and social commentary.

(First published in  O Heraldo, dt: 8 July, 2015)

Friday, July 3, 2015


Halinchea tempar ‘Father of the Opinion Poll’ hea Dotor Jack de Sequeira hankam dilolea ‘title’-acho kaim zonnamni khor nixedh kela. Ho nixedh thoddeach activists-ancho zaun asa. Hantuntlo mukhel veokti mhollear Uday Bhembre, zo fattle kaim mhoine khobram-potramni ani TV-cher aplo nixedh sobhemazar kollit korta. Hea oslea mota fattlean rajkaronn khoinchem ani koslem, hem somzun ghevpacho proyotn hanv korunk sodtam.

Bhembre-chea mota pormannem Dr. Sequeira ho ekloch ‘Opinion Poll’-acho fuddari naslo, punn tache barobor anik-ui zaite zonn asle. Oxem aslolean, Bhembre mhonntta, Dr. Sequeira-k ‘Opinion Poll’-acho Bapui mhonnop chukichem zaun asa. Tachea hea oslea motank zaitem ‘media attention’ mell’llem ani Bhembre-chea motancho virodh-ui zaitea zonnamni kelo. Bhembre-chem mot somzun gheunk ani tachi foddnnixi korunk ami tachea eka ‘interview’-acho ul’lekh korunk zai. Ho ‘interview’ O Herald disalleacher (polle Herald Review, 10 May, 2015) uzvaddak ailolo. Hie mulakhotint Bhembre-chim motam Radharao Gracias hanchea motam vangdda sador kelolim asat ani zaitem jem Bhembre mhonntta tem Radharao Gracias-achim motam vachtoch fals vo chukichim oxem disun yeta.

Bhembre-chea mota pormannem, itihas ho konnench bodlunk zainam, karonn to asa tosoch asta (“History is history, whether one likes it or not”). Hench dhoronn gheun to kaim lok ‘Opinion Poll’-acho itihas kiteak sarkho nokllo tem sangunk sodta. Khorem mhollear hem oslem dhoronn aiz sonvsarachea itihaskaramni soddun dilolem asa. Bhembre-chem hem dhoronn ‘positivist method and philosophy’ hacher adharun asa, oxem disun yeta. Hea ‘positivist method and philosophy’ khala oxem manun ghetat ki itihasantle ‘facts’ he apo-ap ulounk xoktat; tankam itihaskarachi vhoddli xi goroz nasta. Itihaskaramni he ‘facts’ fokot eka fatlean ek oxem korun manddunkuch zai, itlench. Punn oslem dhoronn aiz fottichem tharta, oxem zannkaramni dakhoun dilam. Tor Bhembre oslea dhoronnacho adhar gheun aplim motam kiteak manddtta? Amchea mota pormannem oxem kelolean Bhembre aple zaite ‘agendas’ fuddem vhoronk sodta. Tor te khoinche tem atam polleum-ia.

Bhembrecho poilo ‘agenda’ mhollear to apunnuch ‘Opinion Poll’-achea itihasacher ulounk xrextt oxem somzota. Hem to don toramni korta: Poilie suvater to soglea Kristanv lokank – chodd korun bahujan Kristanvank – je Dr. Sequeira-chea fattlean kal ani aizui ubhe asat tankam, to unnak lekhta ki tankam ‘Opinion Poll’-achea itihasachi sarki mahiti nam mhonnun. Oxem kortanam Bhembre zotnay gheta ani thoim Kristanv somazacho ul’lekh kori nam. Punn konnacher ani khoinchea somazacher to ttika korta  tem amkam sangonastanam kollun yeta.

Dusrie suvater, Bhembre amkam sangta ki apunn ek sakxidar vo ‘first-hand witness’ mhonnun ‘Opinyon Poll’-achea tempavelo. To mhonntta apnnem fokot ‘Opinion Poll’-acher prokaxit zalolem sahityuch nhoi punn te vixim aslolo itihas onnbhovlolo asa mhunn. Haka lagun to mhonntta ki taka hea ‘Opinion Poll’-achea itihasachi chodd bori zannvay asa mhunn. Dusre zonn je aiz Dr. Sequeira-cho zoi-zoikar kortat, te  Bhembre-chea mota pormannem, tea tempar chodd dhaktte asle vo zolmant legun yeunk nasle; haka lagun tankam ‘Opinion Poll’-achea itihasachi zannvay nam. Bhembre-chem hem dhoronn vichitr mhonnunk zai, karonn tachem dhoronn tor ami svikarlem zalear itihasachi likhnni ani xastr kabar zatolem, hantunt il’lo-i dubhav nam!

Bhembre-chem dhoronn vichitr ani fokannachem tharta karonn zaitea vorsam savn choltolea itihaskaram modem ani her somajik zannkaram modem jio ‘debates’ zaliat tancher hem dhoronn add veta. Dekhik ami E. H. Carr hachem What is History? hea pustokacho ul’lekh kelear puro zata. Hea pustokant Carr mhonntta ki ‘facts’ he aplea pãyar ubhe ravun svota ulounk xokonant; tankam ‘interpretation’  vo somzonni ani foddnnixi zai poddtta. Hakach lagun itihaskarachi goroz poddtta. Zalear hatunt itihaskar aple ‘biases’ bhitor haddunk xokta – ani zaite pavttim haddtai bi. Dekhun eka itihaskaran ‘facts’ topasunk zai ani te topasun ‘cross-check’-ui korunk zai. Ami oxem chintunk zainam ki zannim itihas khud onnbhovla tankam itihasachi bori vo sarki zannvay astoli mhunn. Oslea mon’xam lagim ghoddye kosli tori mahiti asot, punn tich  mahiti sarki vo  khori oxem ami manunk zainam. Oxem aslolean ami zonn eklean kholayen chinton korop gorjechem. Zonn eklean ap-apli bhumika zannun gheun proyotn korunk zai: itihasacho bhagidar (participant) toxench itihasacho sod ghevpi vo somzonni divpi (interpreter).

Bhembre-chim motam ani mud’de hankam kainch mol nam hachi govay amkam Radharao Gracias hanchea motantlean melltta. Gracias ek suchovnni korta ani ti mhollear Gõychea Kristanv lokanchem zalolem ‘marginalization’ ami hea ‘Opinion Poll’-achea itihasant somzun gheunk zai mhunn. Rajki mollar hem ‘marginalization’ chodd marekar zaun asa, oxem Gracias amkam sangta. Hakach lagun Gracias Romi-Nagricho mud’do hea ‘Opinion Poll’-achea mud’deak zoddtta ani sangta ki Romi lipik bhair dovorop hich ek vhoddantli-vhodd govay Gõychea Kristanv lokanchea ‘marginalization’-achi zaun asa mhunn. Gracias fuddem mhonntta ki je monis aiz Dr. Sequeira-k ho man dila tacher nixedh martat tech lok kal ani aizui Romi lipik bhair dovorunk vavurtat mhunn. Amkam hacher oxem disun yeta ki Gracias-a sarko monis Gõychea Kristanv lokanchea ‘marginalization’-acher amchem lokx thir korta, zalear Bhembre sarko monis – tache ‘historical facts’ ani apunn ‘first-hand witness’ oxem sangun – heach ‘marginalization’-acho onnbhov zo Gõychea Kristanvamni onnbhovla to nakarta vo nhoikarta. Heach ‘marginalization’-acho onnbhov zor ami monant dovorlo zalear ‘Opinion Poll’-acho itihas zanna zaun ghetanam ho itihas koxe bhoxen bodoltolo?

Gracias-achem jem mot ami voir vachlam tacher anikui kitem sangchem asa.

Romi lipi ani Nagri lipicho vad gheun amcheamni Bhembre sarkea kar’yakorteamni Romi lipik koxi koddek dovorli hem polleunk zata. Zori tor hanv Bhembre-chem kar’ya ani motam hanga somzun gheunk sodtam, torui amkam oxem mhonnunk zai ki oslim motam apnnavpi Bhembre ho ekloch nhoi. Gõyant him motam sabar her dusre lok manun ghetat ani osle lok chodd korun unch zuttiyechim podam aplea tabeant gheun bosleat.

Tor Nagrivadiancho Romi lipik mukhel nixedh  khoincho? To mhollear Romi lipi Purtugez vosnnukponnantlean Gõyant aili, dekhun ti bhaili ani oddechi lipi zaun asa. Haka lagun Romi lipi Gõychi ani Konknnichi nizachi lipi nhoi, oxem Nagrivadiank dista. Romi lipiche add anikui zaitim dhoronnam Nagrivadi mukhar ghaltat – ki Romi lipichea sahityak dorzo nam; ki Nagri lipi chodd bori Konknni bhaxek karonn ti Bharoti lipi; ki Romi lipichi magnni mhollear ‘anti-national’ tharta karonn tantuntlean Gõykaranchem des-bhoxtteponn zata.

Fattlea sabar doxokamni zo tamaxa zala, tantunt ek khobor titli zoran konnuch korinaslo. Ani ti mhollear, jednam Romi lipichi hinnsavnni zata – tie hinnsavnnient Gõychea Kristanv lokanchem-i hinnsavop zata. Oslem hinnsavop choddxem Gõychea bahujan Kristanv lokanchem zata. Hem bahujan Kristanvank chodd lagta karonn zo unch-zaticho Kristanv asa to aplea unch-zatichea zolmak lagon hea oslea ‘attacks’-am pasun pois ravunk vo vochunk xokta. Dekhun amcheamni mhonnunk zata ki Romi lipik man’yatay nam divop mhonnche akkhea Gõychea Kristanv lokanchea sonvskrutayek man’yatay nam divop mhonnun.

Halinchea tempar, Bhembre sarko kar’yakorto hie Romi lipik pois dovorpachea prokoronnant mukhel fuddari asa oxem amcheamni mhonnunk zata. Bhembre-n 2006 vorsa ek chitt sogllea Gõychea ‘Cabinet’ montriank boroiloli tacho ul’lekh korunk zai. Hie chittintlean (Goanet thollacher ti sambhallun asa ani vachunk mellta) amkam disun yeta ki 2006 vorsa tednancho sorkar Official Language Act, 1987 hea Bill-ant bodol haddunk sodtalo mhunn. Bhembre tea kallar Congress pokxacho ‘think-tank’ Vichear Vibhag – hacho Chairman aslolo, ani he vorvim tannem Official Language Act, 1987 hea Bill-ant kosloch bodol zaunk zainam vo korop sarkhem nhoi oxem soglea tednanchea Gõychea montriank potr boroun sanglolem.

Toxench, ek voros poilim – mhollear 2005 vorsa – Bhembre-k Xavier Centre for Historical Research he sonsthen ulovop korunk apoilolo. Tannem ‘Road Map for the Standardisation and Development of the Konkani Language’ he mathallea khal aplem ulovop kel’lem. Bhembrechem mukhel dhoronn hea ulovpant aslem tem mhollear Konknni lokamni Nagri lipi khal ektthaim vo ekvottit zavpachem. Dusrie bhaxen sangchem zalear je konn Romi, Kon’nodd, Malayalam ani Perso-Arbi lipint aplem borovop kortat ani apli khaxeli sonskrutay sambhallun dovortat tannim tem sogllem soddun diun atam fokot Nagri lipicho vapor korcho. Atam amkam ho ‘link’ disun yeta: koxe bhoxen Bhembre eke bazuk ‘standardization’-acho ulo marta ani dusrie bazun Romi lipik man’yatay nam divpant vavurta.

Hantuntlean ek ami ghott monant dovrunk zai. Osle proyotn je zatat te sabar somudayank koddek ani bhair dovorunk zatat mhunn. Hem ‘exclusion’ fokot Gõychea Kristanv lokam purtench nhoi punn Hindu bahujan somazachea lokank legun lagu zata. Hindu bahujan somazantle fuddari Nagri lipichem ani Ontruzi Konknnichem ‘imposition’ tancher unch-zatinchea lokancho aple mutthint dovorpacho yotn oxem te manun ghetat. Dekhun te Moratthi bhaxe khala ektthaim zaunk sodtat. Punn Romi lipintli Konknni hich nizachi Konknni oxem he Moratthivadi fuddari manun ghetat.

Hanvem voir ul’lekh kelolo asa ki Bhembre jem kitem mhonntta ani tachim motam asat tim tachinch nhoi punn Gõyant aslolea sabar lokanchim mhunn. He lok unch zuttiyer ason Gõycher ani Gõychea sonskrutik mollacher aplem raj choloitat ani aplo tabo ghott dovrun asat. Hanga amcheamni Medium of Instruction (MoI) vadacho adhar gheunk zata. Inglez bhas MoI zaunchi oxi mangnni tednam fokot Kristanv lok kortale oso goir-somoz kaim zonnamni kelolo. Haka lagun, sodanchie bhoxen Kristanv lokank ‘anti-national’ mhonnun thomnne marunk laglole. Je konn Inglez bhaxek MoI nam korchi oxi magnni kortale tech lok Romi lipik-ui man’yatay nam divpant vavurpi asle. Hantunt vhoddlem xem kainch ek ojap nam. MoI vadachea vellar je kar’yakorte Bharoti Bhasha Suraksha Manch hache khal ektthaim zalole tankam Hindu bahujan somazantui je Moratthivadi asle, tancho zaito tenko mell’llolo.

Hindu bahujan zome bamonnvadi ‘interests’-ank tenko diit vo nam diit, sodanch oxem zata ki Gõychea Kristanv lokanchio magnnio ani hokk asat tancher khor nixedh ani hinnsavnni zata. Hem chodd korun bahujan Kristanvancher odhik promannan zata. Ti magir magnni kosli-i zaum: Romi lipik man’yatay – zantunt Kristanv lok okosmat Purtugezanche ‘agents’ zatat; magir ti magnni Inglez bhas MoI korchi oxi zaum – zantunt Kristanv lok Bharoti sonskrutaye add vetat mhunn arop zatat; nam zalear halinchea tempar Kristanv lok ‘Opinion Poll’-acho itihas sarke somzun ghenant ani to itihas kaichea-kai bodolpak sodtat, oxem mhunnon. Hie toren Kristanv lokank hinnsaun, ani tancher thomnne marun, tanchi rajki mollar asloli ‘legitimacy’ kaddun ghevpacho proyotn zata – ani khub koddem he proyotn yexosvi zalole amkam disun yetat. Tech bhoxen, ‘Opinion Poll’-achea vellar je Kristanv ‘anti-mergerists’ asle te ‘anti-national’ ani ‘fifth-columnist tendencies’ toyar korpi oso arop kortale – chodd korun tednancho Rakhonn Montri Y. B. Chavan (polle Rajan Narayan ani Sharon D’Cruz, Triumph of Secularism: Battle of the Opinion Poll in Goa, 2011).

Aiz amkam Dr. Sequeira-k konnem ‘Father of the Opinion Poll’ hem nanv dilem tem sarkem khobor nam. Ani hem ami khalteponnan man’ya korunk zai. Punn hem man’ya korun ghetananch ami hem-ui monant dovorunk zai ki Dr. Sequeira bahujan Kristanvank ek ‘icon’ zaun asa. ‘Opinion Poll’-achea itihasant Dr. Sequeira-chi bhumika kosli ani kitli vhodd asli, he prosn vicharop gorjechem. Punn osle prosn Bhembre sarkea Nagrivadianchea hatantlean suttave zaunk xokonant karonn tacho ‘agenda’ veglloch asa. Tacho ‘agenda’ kaim lokam purtoch moryadit asa – je lok Gõychea sonskrutik ani rajki mollar aplo xek choloitat. ‘Opinion Poll’-acho itihas itihaskaramni borouncho – zannim hea xetrant aplem xikxonn ani sod-vavr kela tannim – ani nhoi Bhembre sarkea kar’yakorteamni!

Xevottak, ami zor Gracias-achi suchovnni manun ghetli zalear amkam disun yetolem ki halinchea tempar Gõychea Kristanv lokank rajki mollavoilean pois dovorleat mhunnon. Hi onit zalia ti ami koxi sudhraunchi hacher poilim vichear korunk zai. Gõychie osmitayecho bhar magir amcheamni mathear gheunk zata.

(Ho lekh Gulab, Julay 2015 hea ankant uzvaddak aila)